Is it possible to turn plastic waste into new plastic in a sustainable way?

Waste plastic can be turned into new plastics competing with plastics made from virgin fossil oil via pyrolysis /chemical recycling. This will change the current recycling value chain into a new sustainable ecosystem.

The new ecosystems contains the following steps in the materials cycle:

  • End of life Plastic Waste Stream Collection
  • Cleaning, Sorting and Separation
  • Recycling
    • Chemical recycling
    • Thermal and Thermochemical recycling / Pyrolysis
  • Processing of recycled materials (plastics and chemicals)
  • Production of recycled plastic materials
  • Reuse of the newly created plastics in applications
  • End of life plastic waste stream collection
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What is chemical recycling / pyrolysis?

Chemical recycling today often refers to technologies that can be classed depending on the level at which they break down the plastic waste. Concretely, the technologies can be divided into 3 types:

  • Solvent-based purification. Comprises technologies that go down to the polymer stage. They are capable of decontaminating the plastic but cannot address its degradation. They work only with monostreams (PVC, PS, PE, PP).
  • Chemical depolymerisation. Chemical process which turns the plastics back into their monomers. Allows for decontamination but not addressing degradation. Only works with monostreams (PET, PU, PA, PLA, PC, PHA, PEF).
  • Thermal depolymerisation and cracking (pyrolysis and gasification) are energy-intensive processes which turn the polymers back into simpler molecules. They are capable of decontaminating polymers and, by bringing plastic back to its original building blocks, addressing the degradation of the material. These technologies can deal with more than one monomer at a time and are also capable of producing fuels. This raises the need for strict regulatory controls to prevent plastic being turned into fuel in lieu of recycling.
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